American literature, referring in the context of this essay mainly to literature conceived in the northern part of the American continent, is still coded information, impressions and perspectives, in a medium or mediums that are originally European because most of what is written in the Americas is done mostly in languages that were imported from the Old World. Escapist perhaps, in tradition because of the preoccupation, or fetish even, to that which is new in opposition to the confines of that which is old, the world left behind in pursuit of free territories. And these territories were not vacant, so traditional practices of massacre had to be utilized in order to achieve this new ”purity” of freedom. Perhaps this is some kind of abstraction, a process of reduction, but alas, from something old and consequently tainted. So, if even this concept of a New World has come to being in relation to something old, we could easily argue that its fiction, its biographies, have originated as colonial and as such regional, even provincial instead of worldly, High literature. Here, we are of course referring to artistic values, not necessarily Eurocentric values of an established center, from the perspective of which all removed and remote forms of culture appear as peripheral — twice removed even. No, in terms of colonial or regional creative writing, we may be emphasizing on
how the former are slavishly imitative of some dominant (but remote and irrelevant) cultural tradition because they hope to gain approval from it, and validation for themselves as being 'civilized' and 'cultured'; and the latter (regional literatures) exhibit the opposite vice, of making a great noise about their own special unique experiences, which no-one who isn't them can understand or appreciate. Colonial literature tends to be derivative and inauthentic; regional literature tends to be obscure and introspective, and obsessed with local detail (and quite often also derivative and inauthentic, because it is being written for some purpose other than the purely artistic). Both of these types are provincial, because they are ultimately focused on what the outside world thinks of them.1
As we can see, this could be applied to “products” of any particular and derivative form of culture there is to be found. And when we are looking at some specific culture, cultivation or a genre, we are most certainly also looking at a derivative phenomenon since no phenomenon comes to being in a vacuum and out of nothing — we may be wise to leave the origins of existence outside the range of whatever implied in this essay. A lengthy description could be easily produced to justify this Ex Nihilo Nihil Fit- argument in terms of whatever cultural product we are looking at, but here we may be content with this following citation that justly reminds us that human culture and its language- and logo-centric manifestations cannot be disjointed from the world of physical phenomena: ”Human beings belong to reality as a one (internally extremely complex) system among others. A human observer cannot know other systems directly but is able to interact with them, within the constrictions of the entirety. Every action causes a change in both the observed object and the observer.”2
Thus, when we are looking at some specific cultural genre, like original American Beat literature or Scandinavian Black Metal, we are also looking at cultures that interact with their environment, which is in the anthropic sense acknowledged as Condition. And, as a counter-reaction to that specific context, these, then should be understood as satellites of sort, lesser through contest specific evolution? Should it not be rather formulated, at least from the perspective of the inherent observer of this text, as: a development of a phenomenon pertaining to one of the most complex peaks of known hierarchies, like Alexander Argyros, for one, suggests?3 There is no reason not to. No compelling reason — compelling to an intellect that cannot but be drawn to accept the most explanatory depiction of history, metaphysical or strictly quantitative, as the most likely. This acceptance should be a process of educated approximation, like history, the history of evolution that is evolution itself. Like acting through immediate realization of possibility was inherent in both the environment, and the afore mentioned inherent observer of this text.
What we are also suggesting, is that when Black Metal ceases to be exclusively anti-christian, it may engender new states of novelty derived from its own internal constructions, originating in the conditions provided by the system itself. The conditions, that sparked the reaction, no longer define these new structures, each with their own dynamic evolution, they enjoy the absolute freedom to realize any and all possibilities that open constantly as the structure reforms (in fact, the `re-´ is unnecessary in this said `formation´). Nevertheless, there is no reason to omit the part of “memory” pertaining to the onset conditions, for that is all history, the story of a culture; it is relevant, as is the epoch of whatever motion preceding it – and what we are looking at, when we observe the given phenomena – is documentation, or traces of motion. Motion, that is particular but obeys general lawfulness that stems from a constitution written billions of years ago. This lawfulness is, of course, constrictive, as it is written in the stuff that is more fundamental than stone, and no inscription carved in stone can reduce what this constitution allows, although, as Argyros points out4, there are also phenomena like retroactive causality, as according to quantum theory, that suggests a far more complex conglomeration of feedback relays that are, indeed, cast in stone. Therefore, it should be born in mind that the laws that define and determine evolution, are negotiable and are, in fact, re-determined more or less constantly. They could be said to be re-invented constantly.
As a mode of transgression, trespassing on tabooed ground, the said cultures are reactions against arbitrary limitations — limitations that should perhaps be understood as attempts on anthropocentric arche-writing5 — that are constantly disputed by the phenomena witnessed as constant, the world, the laws that are “physical” in that they are detectable. And the authority that is called to outlaw these transgressions, withholds intervention. Withholds as of yet, and this, therefore, makes intervention improbable. Thus, since we have no reason to outlaw the very existence of neither the particular phenomenon, nor the conditions that sparked it, we can perceive this development as “natural”. The commentary provided in this essay is, then, introspection of nature from within nature, and, in addition to this, it should be admitted that from the perspective stance occupied in this essay, the freedoms enjoyed by both Black Metal and Beat literature, appear much more tenable than the limitations imposed by an equally natural but consequently deified self-constraint.
The stages `in counter-action´ and `realization of possibility´ are stages of ontogenies specified and characterized as pertaining to particular conditions, and there is sense in forming hierarchical models when describing such trajectory. As Richard Goymer phrases it:
I suggested that a literary tradition 'comes of age' when it gets beyond these stages, when it is no longer trying to be something else than it is, or something that no-one else is; when it can take its own experiences and universalize them, so as to make them intelligible to other cultures which have had other experiences, histories and myths. I suggested that American Literature came of age with writers like Hawthorne and Twain, who took particular cultural experiences (puritan fundamentalist communities in Hawthorne, the frontier in Twain) and made of them universally significant landscapes in which ethical problems and dilemmas recognizable to all humans are examined and dramatized.6
Making use of Stanley N. Salthes explanation of his figuration concerning “ontogenic trajectories” I would like to add that ”The arrow from the genome to the organism (protein synthesis [arrow pointing from left to right through the stages of protein synthesis, the medium through which the `occute ovule´ as it matures to an aged, `senescent´ individual keeps on using genetic information to `modulate natural processes by producing conditions within which these processes will be able to guide morphogenesis into building and sustaining an organism from moment to moment´]) shows the direction of flow of information. It should be viewed as occurring all along the trajectory, not just at one point as shown for clarity.”7
In other words, the organism or system gathers the feedback it uses to adapt its processes according to the constantly changing conditions. It also adapts to changes within its own organization. So, if one prefers to perceive forms of expression such as literature or music as modes of inscription, ways to document experience and impression, these forms of culture, then, appear in this respect similar, for the documentary value of performing such a function, to protein synthesis, which, as above according to Salthe, processes sensory feedback on a chemical level encoding this information into bundles that are then stored into archives of nucleic acids. Thus subcultural forms of music and literature may well be seen as means of transcending particular conditions through this ability inherent in organisms of this complexity level; the ability to gather feedback and make use of it. Thus, the `coming of age´ Goymer refers to, is a constant process rather than an instant, and when this process appears in textual form, what we witness is the emergence of an additional medium of being; a further dimension realized by an evolving organism. This is what literature is: an additional medium to being.
Consequently, if like William S. Burroughs, the notorious beat writer, affirms: ”Yes, for all of us in the Shakespeare Squadron, writing is just that: not an escape from reality, but an attempt to change reality, so (the) writer can escape the limits of reality. The unworthies in power feel danger, like cows uneasily pawing the ground with a great `Moo´.”8, there is resonance between what is postulated in this essay, what a beat writer introspectively affirms, and perhaps even the phenomena of the world as such, and if so, we can agree, that this essay is, at least somewhat, descriptive. Furthermore, as to provide a description or simulation is what is ultimately intended in this essay, we can be satisfied with the fact that an internal consensus is achieved: the logic of this essay is thus far both inherent and, it is to be hoped, made visible.
Further aspects of interest can be found in focusing on the particular products of the dynamic process here labeled `evolution´. These products are, as manifestations of momentary realization, laden with both implications of further possibility, traces of its former being, and conditions to which this being has been subjected to. They document the history of an organism, its introspection and self-organization, carry moments of realization from one temporal present to the next, and, as we can see in this following lyric by a Norwegian Black Metal band by the name of Satyricon, this process is preoccupied with producing present and retrospective awareness, which in turn implicate future possibilities:
a Moment of Clarity
Without beginning, without end (our lifeblood)
the road for the spiritual outlaw is never ending
and so is the hunt for all those answers
the devil may hold your truth, what a fucking relief it would be (to know)
bluecold and the grim truth stands before you, all you ever wanted ?
Descend and fly away to another day, another night
sleep forever or serve to justify
The brand that you wear speak of what you are made of
It leaves you like an open book for everyone to read
Is this it, is this what you wanted?
The eye of the rest on your back
To be a part of the masterplan is the only way
to spiritual hell
drink to that and never forget where you came from
cause there's no such thing as one way ticket to hell
what a fucking relief that is
Descend and fly away to another day, another night
sleep forever or serve to justify9
The authoring organism, or Sigurd Wongraven as the author of the lyric, is indeed formulating itself in this product, which, of course, is presented here in a limited form, since it is separated from the music that the text is woven into, but we must make use of what can be reproduced in the context of this essay. Sleep, in this lyric, is taken to depict the settings imposed as fundamental defaults, defaults which limit reality, making some aspects of reality realizable only as dreams, hence the metaphor. But the metaphor also carries traces of the illusion or utopia, which is taken to be at the end of the “law abiding” as opposed to “outlawed” lifeblood of a contextually present Scandinavian form of Christianity, the “prize” for accepting the said limitations. Also the “forever” is a part of this offering, for there is the promise of eternal life or sleep, as in half-life (meaning ”unsatisfactory way of living”10) that goes with affirming ones position as ”a part of the masterplan”, and the option, which is given in the previous sentence: “Descend and fly away to another day, another night”, is to reject the justification and eternal salvation by stepping down from that position, a position aligned to receive that “prize”.
The focus is on a status, that is equally rebellious, as that of William S. Burroughs above, and, needless to say, the descent is a step down only as perceived from the position relinquished here. Thus, when the descent is followed by flying away, which of course suggests a new sense of position as opposing to falling or being lost from the herd, we are already aware of a new freedom. The freedom of emergent organisms, but this is an unauthorized freedom, which loses the certainty of predetermination associated with a justifying authority, or rather handed down as pre-approved answers. Here the truth appears also as a mode or a medium, which either is or is not deified. “Bluecold and the grim” version of reality may not be ”all you ever wanted”, as is asked in the lyric, but it is expressed, that whether one chooses to project this truth to the outside humanity by wearing a mark (or rather a sign like the Cross of Peter or the Pentagram, which are two of the most favored insignia used among Blackmetallers, as one encountering them can witness), one is making the decision to exist in open opposition and suffer the consequences, instead of maybe choosing a more furtive or subversive mode of resistance and being.
Although Black Metal, in the form of its Scandinavian manifestations, was and is often associated with nationalism or nationalistic movements of some sort, its universality as an emergent medium, within which the awareness of the freedom and un-authorization of emergence define the horizons of its subjects; its creators. Its regionality or provinciality soon became an untenable position to those of its procreators that choose to accept the implications of their own emergence in the fullest. Black Metal appears thus in the form of an iconoclastic reformation that shook the petrified metaphysical structures of a particular Status Quo, so that innovation and proliferation of new formulations became possible again; a death and subsequent re-invention of life. As if a bough of the evolutionary tree had succumbed, in its senescence, to be eaten by some new species of maggots that then had their own ontogeny. The larvae then went through a metamorphosis during which the species reinvents itself, its own identity. This sort of ontogeny may be witnessed among many of the leading figures of Scandinavian Black Metal, like, for example, the musicians of another Norwegian band, Ulver11.
To come back to the American Beats, the universality of freedom is, as a given fact or, should it rather be said, as a monumental attractor in the topography of the consciousnesses that comprise the movement, present in the cartography, as well as, I would argue, in the terrain, or environment of the movement; an encountered quality pertaining to both the self and the environment that the textual charts or hypotheses then simulate with the signs and codes of the movement's own chosen mediums or languages: poetry and literature. The same rift and revolution, the same collapse into chaos, can be found at the advent of the Beat movement again, in the reproductions of experience and experiment that are left to document its phases like a paper trail that seems to disappear and re-emerge abruptly even from the sights of its nucleus quartet when the works were still in the make: Gregory Corso, Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs. Corso explains that his first batch of poems was left at the bus terminal of Miami, Florida. But he was not worried because he felt he was the poetry, so, as long as he had the poet, he had the poetry12. Indeed, he was a part of evolution, a manifestation of that evolution, and aware of the freedom pertaining to the emergence of what he was. For Corso the poet “is always, has always been”, free, to him there is no American poetry because the poet is first and foremost a universal being; he is “of man, not of particular place of man—that is why it is impossible for a true poet to be nationalistic”13.
The poet is, however, subject to a particular state and setting as a human being; “[t]he poet does not suffer his poetry, he suffers his humanness”14. The poet, or artist, cannot escape the physical world, nor can he escape the politics that control the distribution of goods in the sociotemporal15, human realm, that the poet represents as a human being. This is not to say that there is no such thing as escapist art, but rather that the artists are also physical beings and as such part of the physical world and subject to its laws. The novelty, or innovation, of both these movements, lies in the awareness of the world, and the self along with it, as a changing, mutating entirety. As Corso writes: “To not know that the world is changing is to be certain of a world that is familiar and old, a world that is no longer” and he acknowledges that there is nothing new in the fact that everything is changing since “[i]t has always been so, but it has not always been like it is today; we are fully aware of the changing process, in and around us—we are close to it, and for the first time in human history we are wholly uncertain of what will come of it all—“16. (It has to be noted that even though these movements may have discovered this constant change and consequent freedom of their own, they have also re-invented an ancient notion that merely wasn’t fashionable enough to gain momentum as article, ultimately, of faith as contrasted to rational observation or science. There is no reason to deny or affirm that Democritus invented atomism yet he did, we just don't know whether there were others before him who had similar hypotheses or not, and, actually it is quite irrelevant. If the phenomena of the world are depicted as accurately as possible, there is an evident resemblance between representations and the terrain itself, or a terrain that is witnessed by also others than me.)
Adaptation, then, becomes a matter of prediction, in fact, this is what the Beats are obsessed with; writing the future, or liberating the future from the constraints of a platonic straight-jacket, the metaphysics of absolute being. Uncertainty is the price accepted and paid (perhaps Kerouac’s nostalgia to Catholicism made him a prisoner of debt having not paid his dues in full17) for the freedom of the world. Thus, since there is no divine plan, human survival is in human hands, and whatever threats the future might hold become human concerns. Unfortunately, or out of the pressure created by the development of nuclear weaponry, this human, and artistic, liberation turns to realization of threats stemming from former metaphysical formation and thus, as almost like an attempt on correcting, re-programming summary groups of individuations that all are a part of the human system. A system that, indeed, suffers from its humanity, and not from its universality, as Corso above suggests. The possible threats must then, even if they are realized only as possibilities, be met with preventive measures. An organism is not innately acceptive of annihilation, at least not the individuations that do not. Burroughs writes about this process as “wising up” especially in books of his Nova-trilogy18. He is critically concerned with activating the objective reader to become a subjective reader and re-receive the ability to act on value judgment. This judgment is based on, what can be said to be, an early version of simulative evolution theory. As an educated anthropologist he was drawn far from the western dreams of Unilinear Evolution and branched off perhaps ultimately as a cybernetic organism encoded by textual reprogramming into the hive like being of the Soft Machine, that is the human organism.
All originality, as a claim for ownership of one’s own creation, is impossible after admitting to have gone through such introspection as a reader of such textual system-viruses. The most powerful explanatory models spread, like cholera among the malnourished, among those set on finding such models, possibly also creating them. What Burroughs wrote helps in that sort of survivalist activism, after all, science is ultimately and innately interested in, or at least born out of such action. This, if admitted, is of course, another version of burroughsian ideas, virulent as vermins, manifesting as coded textual semen aching to impregnate, to infect. That elderly queer never did become slack, in that he never did cease to be “an indispensable indication that it is possible to be vicious without becoming slack.” and as Alan Ansen continues:
How many addicts one knows incapable of more than a sob or monosyllable, how many queens who seem to have no place in life except the perfume counter at Woolworths or the economy price whorehouse. To use drugs without losing consciousness and articulateness, to love boys without turning into a mindless drab is a form of heroism.”19
There is some apparent purposefulness both in Burroughs and some of the more musically complex Black metal acts like Satyricon, or the now retired Emperor, that forced their expression into coherence; a strict and meticulous attitude towards the works created. It goes without saying that Black Metallers are also vicious.
To get back on track we should note that the heroism of, at least, some Rock n’ Roll musicians (Rock n' Roll of course act as upper category that includes Black Metallers) bear some resemblance to what Burroughs writes in a manifesto called THE FUTURE OF THE NOVEL:
The conferring writers have been accused by the press of not paying sufficient attention to the question of human survival— In Nova Express [the reference is to an exploding planet] and The Ticket That Exploded [the reference is to the freedom of emergence], I am primarily concerned with survival— with nova conspiracies, nova criminals, and nova police— A new mythology is possible in the space age where we will again have heroes and villains with respect to intentions toward this planet—20
When we look at Satyricon’s earlier material such as the song Mother North from the album Nemesis Divina (1996), we can witness the presence of ecological concerns in phrases such as ”how can they sleep when their beds are burning” and “pigeon hearted beings of flesh and blood keeps closing their eyes for the dangers that threat ourselves and our nature”21, but let such matters of who-and-where tinkering be as they may, what I am trying to emphasize is, that once the implications of unauthorized existence are accepted, no matter what are your aesthetic concerns, the physical world has to be taken seriously when documenting and predicting experience.
Transgressive culture is counter-culture by definition; there has to be a standard, a system of values that is violated by procreation of counter-cultural activity. The transgression is an act of rebellion, more precisely, an act of creation. A form of creative innovation that pushes the limits and thus re-inventing freedom; an affirmative refusal in that by taking their stand the said forms of being and their modes of expression be admitted as culture, which they already, by biological right, are. But this is beginning to be a metaphysical debate, and the cultures mentioned do not need to be admitted the existence they already possess in that they are. It would be of no consequence whatsoever, to say that transgressive culture is not real or high or even true because it comes to being only in reference to something priorly established. Human forms of culture tend to impose heterogeny of sort often on utterly arbitrary grounds. This most definitely has to do with the fact that culture is also, by definition, a group activity liable to social pressures, which, at times, cause ruptures and fermentation that can, then, result in the invention of new frontiers, and at times social pressures may also cause the collapse of entire civilizations. Thus, as chaotic as it may seem, all counter cultural activism is, residually or ultimately, a form of primal survivalist activity that abrade the sensibilities of cultivated humanity as they create through an opposition to the confines of the old, the create their freedom through destruction of the confines of old and what they feel and perceive to be senescent cultures. But since there is the odd chance that something unprecedented comes to being, something that may have actualized as a hole, a gap in the structures that hoist up cultures, an empty space fertilized by crumbs, offal and idle waste of the very machinations that make cultures, there is also the chance that something that may survive the conditions that created it and fly away to new modes of being and new concepts of beauty.
- Argyros, Alexander J. 1991: A Blessed Rage for Order. Ann Arbor, USA: The University of Michigan Press
- Burroughs, William S. 1990: Interzone. London: Penguin Books
- Burroughs, William S. 1998: Junky. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books
- Burroughs, William S. 1986: Queer. London: Pan Books
- Burroughs, William S. 1993: Naked Lunch. London : Harper Collins
- Burroughs, William S. 1986: The Soft Machine. London: Paladin Books
- Burroughs, William S. 1987: The Ticket That Exploded. London: Paladin Books
- Burroughs, William S. 1990: Dead City Radio. United Kingdom: Island Records
- Burroughs, William S. 1992: Nova Express. New York: Grove Press
- Burroughs, William S. 1983: Hurjat Pojat: Kuolleiden Kirja; suom. Kari Lempinen. Helsinki: Odessa
- Burroughs, William S. 1993: exterminator!. London: Penguin Books
- Burroughs, William S. 1980: Port of Saints. London: John Calder
- Burroughs, William S. 1984: Burroughs File. San Francisco: City Lights Books.
- Burroughs, William S. 1985: The Adding Machine: Collected essays. London: Calder
- Burroughs, William S. 1982: Cities of Red Night. London: Picador/Pan Books
- Burroughs, William S. 1984: Place of Dead Roads. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston
- Burroughs, William S. 1988: The Western lands. New York: Penguin Books
- Burroughs, William S. 2005: Kissa Sisälläni; suom. Elina Koskelin. Turku: Sammakko
- Burroughs, William S. 1995: Ghost of Chance. London: Serpent’s Tail; High Risk Books
- Burroughs, William S. 2000: Last words: the final journals of William Burroughs. London: Flamingo
- Burroughs, William S. & Daniel Odier 1989: The Job: Interviews with William S. Burroughs. 1969. New York, Penguin Books
- Castaneda, Carlos. 1970: The teachings of Don Juan: a Yaqui way of knowledge. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.
- Foster, Edward Halsey 1992: Understanding the Beats. Columbia, South Carolina: South Carolina University Press
- Gell-Mann, Murray. 1995: Quark and the Jaquar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. New York: Henry Holt and Company
- Moynihan, Michael & S
- Murphy, Timothy S. 1997: Wising Up the Marks: the Amodern William S. Burroughs. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press
- Nemerov, Howard. 1966: Contemporary American Poetry. Washington, USA: Voice of America
- Soderlind, Didrik & Moynihan, Michael. 1998: Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Undergound. USA: Feral House
- Satyricon, 1996: Nemesis Divina. Nesodtangen, Norway: Moonfog
- Satyricon, 1999: Intermezzo II. Nesodtangen, Norway: Moonfog
- Ulver, 1999: Metamorphosis. Oslo, Norway: Jester
- Hume, Kathryn 1999:William S. Burroughs’s Phantasmic Geography, Contemporary Literature Vol. 40, No. 1 (Spring, 1999), pp. 111-135: University of Wisconsin Press: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1208821
- Laughead, George 2007: Beats In Kansas: Shooting Joan Burroughs. Hosted at WWW-virtual Library: http://www.vlib.us/beats/shootingjoan.html
- Grauerholtz, James W. 2002: The Death of Joan Vollmer Burroughs: What Really Happened? University of Kansas: http://old.lawrence.com/burroughs/deathofjoan-full.pdf
1 This perspective is that which Richard Goymer demonstrated in his introductive lecture American Literature in the fall of 2010 in the University of Oulu. The direct citation is from a private e-mail correspondence between the author and Richard Goymer
2 Tarja Kallio-Tamminen: Kohti uutta todellisuuskäsitystä —kvanttimekaniikka ja termodynaaminen energiavirta. Tieteessä tapahtuu 1/2011 s. 9 Tieteen Seuran Valtuuskunta.Translated by author.
3 Argyros, Alexander J. 1991: 111–128
4 Argyros, Alexander J. 1991: 123–127
5 Arche-writing, concept taken to be coined by Derrida, refers here to the idea of an underlying metaphysical meaning-structure, that writing is built upon a structure, formed through arbitrary labeling or reification of meaning, in the sense that the signs of any given text are cut off of their actual referents, by a continuum of references that defer the ultimate presence of the referent out of reach. Make it some form of forever evading otherness. Thus all metaphysical structures are equally baseless and equally arbitrary sets of value labels. See http://www.iep.utm.edu/derrida/#SH3b
6 Also from private correspondence
7 Salthe, 1993: 7–8 from Theory of Evolution — In Need of a New Synthesis edited by Sintonen & Sirén
8 Burroughs, 2000: 16
9 Satyricon/Sigurd Wongraven, 1999
11 For reference it might be suggested to look at e.g. Lords of Chaos by Soderlind and Moynihan (1998) or documentaries such as Det Svarte Alvor (the Black Truth) http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3392989328188807029 . Also the album booklet material such as on Ulver’s Metamorphosis EP (1999).
12 Corso, 1966: 218–219 (in Contemporary American Poetry edited by Howard Nemerov)
13 Corso, 1966:225
14 as above
15 Argyros explains this term as stemming from Fraser’s concept modelling the evolution of time; sociotemporality is the temporality of the human socius, which means time as understood and experienced by human beings in comparison to, say, minerals or quarks. Argyros, 1991: 129–152
16 Corso, 1966: 226
17 Burroughs often remarks those of Kerouac’s features that bring up akin to Catholic teachings, i.e. the essay Remembering Kerouac in the collection The Adding Machine.
18 Soft Machine (1957–1960), The Ticket That Exploded (1957–61, Nova Express (1961–1963)—the creation timeline taken from Word Virus (1998)
19 Burroughs File, 1984: 19
20 originally published in The Third Mind, which Burroughs wrote with Brion Gysin, this reference is to collection Word Virus: Burroughs: 1998: 272–273
21 Satyricon: 1996